Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits. Other evidence suggests that the practice of modern market segmentation was developed incrementally from the 16th century onwards. Retailers, operating outside the major metropolitan cities, could not afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively, yet retailers needed to find ways to separate the wealthier clientele from the “riff raff”. One simple technique was to have a window opening out onto the street from which customers could be served. This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside.

term rates

  • Another interpretation of this theory suggests that, provided everything else is equal, an investor would always prefer to hold shorter-term bonds in place of longer-term bonds.
  • What are the advantages of using the back simulation approach to estimate market risk?
  • Interest rate is measured on the vertical axis and time to maturity is measured on the horizontal axis.
  • A bond’s yield can theoretically be divided into a risk-free yield and the risk premium.

It means if you play to invest for the long term, then you can’t buy a short term bond and rollover. Normally, interest rates and time to maturity are positively correlated. Therefore, interest rates rise with an increase in the time to maturity. The yield curve is often seen as a bond market’s measure of confidence in the economy. Behavioral segmentation is more complex to manage because it requires brands to have access to behavioral data.

Labor market segmentation

Banks and building societies hold their funds in short-dated instruments, usually no longer than five years in maturity. This is because of the nature of retail banking operations, with a large volume of instant access funds being deposited at banks, and also for regulatory purposes. Holding short-term, liquid bonds enables banks to meet any sudden or unexpected demand for funds from customers. The classic theory suggests that as banks invest their funds in short-dated bonds, the yields on these bonds is driven down. When they then liquidate part of their holding, perhaps to meet higher demand for loans, the yields are driven up and prices of the bonds fall. the differences between covered interest arbitrage, inter market arbitrage, and triangular arbitrage, and how the cycle of investments and cross rates played a part. List three forms of efficient market hypothesis, and describe what information is assumed to be reflected in security prices under each of these hypotheses. Is there any empirical evidence for the validity of technical analysis in financial markets? Briefly explain the concept of the efficient market hypothesis and each of its three forms weak, semi-strong, and strong and briefly discuss the degree to which existing empirical evidence supports each of the three forms of the EMH.

Institutional account management

Assets may be illiquid because they are riskier and/or because supply exceeds demand. Additionally, illiquid assets are more difficult to price, since previous sale prices may be stale or nonexistent. When a marketer enters more than one market, the segments are often labeled the primary target market and secondary target market. The primary market is the target market selected as the main focus of marketing activities.

fixed income securities

The hard assumptions are difficult to carry in the real world scenarios. Preferred habitat states that if investors see they will be receiving more yield in other segments rather than their preferred segment, then they will move from their preferred segment. A yield curve is a line that plots the interest rates, at a set point in time, of bonds having equal credit quality but differing maturity dates. The biased expectations theory says that the term structure of interest rates is influenced by other factors than expectations of future rates. Suburban stores were located near general-purpose stores, such as Walmart, so shoppers were not there to buy general household items. CVS designed the suburban stores to conveniently place health and beauty products close to the pharmacy, where customers went to pick up their prescriptions.

Market Segmentation Process & Theory

The concept of market segmentation was defined as viewing a heterogeneous market as a number of smaller homogeneous markets in response to differing product preferences among important market segments. Since according to the segmented markets hypothesis a separate market exists for specific maturities along the term structure, interest rates for these maturities are set by supply and demand. Investors in segmented markets bear a higher level of risk by holding a disproportionately large share of their investments in their local market as opposed to the level of risk if they invested in a globally diversified portfolio. Reflecting this higher level of risk, investors and lenders in such markets require a higher rate of return on local market investments than if investing in a globally diversified portfolio of stocks. As such, the cost of capital for firms in segmented markets, having limited access to global capital markets, often is higher than the global cost of capital.

The capital markets are made up of a wide variety of users, each with different requirements. Certain classes of investors will prefer dealing at the short-end of the yield curve, while others will concentrate on the longer end of the market. That is, the shape of the yield curve is determined by supply and demand for certain specific maturity investments, each of which has no reference to any other part of the curve.


In dividing or markets, researchers typically look for common characteristics such as shared needs, common interests, similar lifestyles, or even similar demographic profiles. The overall aim of segmentation is to identify high yield segments – that is, those segments that are likely to be the most profitable or that have growth potential – so that these can be selected for special attention (i.e. become target markets). Business-to-business sellers might segment the market into different types of businesses or countries, while business-to-consumer sellers might segment the market into demographic segments, such as lifestyle, behavior, or socioeconomic status. In other words, we can’t say that 10-year bonds always pay, say 1% lower yields than 15-year bonds.

Market Segmentation Theory (Finance) – Explained

Another solution, that came into vogue starting in the late sixteenth century, was to invite favored customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display. Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper’s private home for the benefit of wealthier clients. Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in 1660, describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack. The segmentation process involves breaking down your target market into smaller markets based on demographic, geographic, psychographic or behavioral characteristics. Behavior segmentation focuses on how a product is used while demographics looks at how each person’s age, gender, familial status, income level and ethnic background, among other things, affect their purchases.

Cyber Security Market is set to grow at a CAGR of 13.57% by 2027, Increase in cyber threats to drive the – Benzinga

Cyber Security Market is set to grow at a CAGR of 13.57% by 2027, Increase in cyber threats to drive the.

Posted: Mon, 27 Feb 2023 11:30:00 GMT [source]

The inverted yield curve precedes recessions because the Federal Reserve increases interest rates to slow the economy, causing the inversion, usually to combat inflation. But if interest rates remain too high for too long, the economy will slow too much, thereby leading to a recession, which explains why the inverted yield curve predicts recessions. Geographical labor markets emerge because of the costs and disruption workers incur in changing locations. As a result, wages for the same work can remain higher in some locations than others. Conversely, employers would incur costs and disruption if they attempted to relocate to an area of lower labor costs, and might experience increases in non-labor expenses. Cultural differences such as preferences for leisure time versus work may follow geography.

Trickle-Up Economics Describes the best tax policy for any country to maximize happiness and economic wealth, based on simple economic principles. Explain the basic differences between the operation of a currency forward market and a futures market. Describe the three major markets and some of the factors that can affect the well-being of the markets. Briefly describe the role of money market mutual funds in the commercial paper market. Give an example of an oligopoly market in Australia and how it fits in with the characteristics of the oligopoly market structure.

Our outcome-based market segmentation methodology, described here by Strategyn founder Tony Ulwick, offers a better way to segment markets and formulate growth strategies. Using customer desired outcomes as the basis for market segmentation, we helped Motorola discover unique segments of opportunity and hidden revenue streams. Our market segmentation methodology works because it is built around a solid definition of what acustomer needis.

An effective segmentation strategy reveals the dynamics of a market. Our Opportunity Landscape has proven to be an invaluable tool for helping us visualize those dynamics and the degree to which market segments are over- and underserved. A landscape is a snapshot of all the customers outcomes in multiple segments. Each dot in the landscape represents the degree to which a specific outcome is important to the customer and the customer’s level of satisfaction. We discover unique segments of opportunity by segmenting markets around customer outcomes. Using these insights, a company is able to formulate a market segmentation strategy that will guide and inform its growth.

Note that this depends on demand and supply as well as demand and risk related to security. Related to the market segmentation theory is the preferred habitat theory, which states that investors prefer to remain in their own bond maturity range due to guaranteed yields. The advantage of market segmentation theory is that it succeeds where the other two theories fail.

demographic segmentation

Market segmentation is not only designed to identify the most profitable segments, but also to develop profiles of key segments in order to better understand their needs and purchase motivations. Insights from segmentation analysis are subsequently used to support marketing strategy development and planning. Many marketers use the S-T-P approach; Segmentation → Targeting → Positioning to provide the framework for marketing planning objectives.